Finished Drinking Water and Treatment Fundamentals
By the Water Quality & Health Council

Finished Drinking WaterDrinking water has been called the 2nd most essential human need (after the air we breathe). Every day, over 50,000 community drinking water systems serve over 300 million Americans, with just 3 percent of these systems serving almost 80 percent of the US population.1,2 Regulated by the Safe Drinking Water Act, and supported by the work of federal, state, tribal and local governments and utilities, the US drinking water system has been recognized as one of the nation’s most significant advances in public health.3

Raw and Finished Drinking Water

About two-thirds of Americans served by community drinking water systems obtain their raw (i.e., untreated) water from surface water sources, such as rivers, lakes and reservoirs.4 The remaining third are served by municipal groundwater systems using wells, while some systems use both sources. In addition to source water protection, transforming raw surface water or groundwater into … READ MORE >>

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Zika Virus: What Can We Expect this Summer?
By Bob G. Vincent

Mosquito repellent can help reduce exposure to mosquitoes that carry Zika virus; infants younger than two months can be protected with mosquito netting.

Mosquito repellent can help reduce exposure to mosquitoes that carry Zika virus; infants younger than two months can be protected with mosquito netting.

As summertime approaches and vulnerable areas of the US warm up, concerns over the potential spread of Zika virus are on the rise. The virus is spread mainly through the bite of an infected Aedes aegypti mosquito, but also can be transmitted sexually. Zika virus is associated with birth defects (microcephaly) in infants of infected mothers and Guillain-Barre Syndrome, an immune system disorder.

Last summer, several regions of the US were identified as possible sites of Zika virus outbreaks based on modeling studies1 and well-publicized outbreaks in Brazil and other areas of Latin America. Although there have been over 5,000 travel-related cases reported2 in the US since 2015, local transmission of the virus in the continental US occurred in just 224 … READ MORE >>

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Avoiding Crypto at the Pool this Summer
By Chris Wiant, M.P.H., Ph.D. and Ralph Morris, M.D., M.P.H.

This summer the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and health departments across the country will strive to keep an unwanted parasite out of America’s pools, hot tubs and water parks. The microscopic organism, “Crypto,” short for Cryptosporidium, causes diarrhea and spreads through recreational water via the fecal-to-oral route. Yes, that’s a revolting image, but an awareness of how Crypto spreads can go a long way toward preventing outbreaks that can put a serious dent in your summer fun.  Crypto is not present in every pool, but according to CDC data, the number of US Crypto outbreaks in aquatic venues doubled between 2014 and 2016.

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Superbugs and Sewage at the Beach
By Ralph Morris, MD, MPH, and Joan B. Rose, PhD

We seem to be reading and writing a lot about superbugs—antibiotic resistant bacteria that are responsible for at least 2 million infections (including healthcare-associated infections acquired while receiving medical treatment in a hospital) and 23,000 deaths each year in the US.1 But the recent discovery of the “superbug enzyme” NDM2 in bathing seawaters in Ireland impacted by untreated sewage/wastewater3 brings this global public health issue even closer to home. After all, unless you work in the healthcare field, most of us avoid hospitals but go out of our way to spend a day at the beach!

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Survey: 1 in 4 Adults Would Swim with Diarrhea
By the Water Quality & Health Council

Diarrheal outbreaks linked to swimming are a persistent challenge for aquatic venues

Crypto-Editorial-Cartoon

Americans will soon head to the pool as Memorial Day weekend marks the unofficial start of the swimming season, but a new survey reveals that there may be more in the pool than just water.

The survey, conducted on behalf of the Water Quality and Health Council, found that 1 in 4 adults (25 percent) would swim within one hour of having diarrhea, half of adults (52 percent) seldom or never shower before swimming in a pool, and that 3 in 5 adults (60 percent) admit to swallowing pool water while swimming.

These results are concerning to experts from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Water Quality and Health Council, and the National Swimming Pool Foundation® (NSPF®), given that waterborne outbreaks of diarrheal disease caused by the germ Cryptosporidium (or … READ MORE >>

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