Controlling the Spread of Invasive Aquatic Species with the Ballast Water Management Convention
By Chris Wiant, M.P.H, Ph.D.

Ballast water is the marine or fresh water taken into the ballast tank of a ship to improve the vessel’s stability, buoyancy and maneuverability. Unfortunately, the process of adding and subtracting ballast water, so vital to a ship’s operation, can have unintended consequences for aquatic ecosystems.

 

Ballast water may include aquatic life forms native to the ecosystem of the water “take in” point, but foreign to the ecosystem of the water “release” point. This watery exchange can promote the spread of invasive aquatic species, a global environmental issue that is the subject of the Ballast Water Management Convention. The Convention requires participating nations to have a ballast water management plan to help avoid disrupting native ecosystems with invasive aquatic species.

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Autumn: When Leaves Fall, So Can Water Quality
By Steve Hubbs, P.E.

autumnNow that summer is over—and hopefully the record-setting 2017 hurricane season—many of us can turn our attention to the cooler temperatures, shorter days and the colorful splendor of autumn leaves. Of course, all of those red, orange, and yellow leaves are short-lived and fall to the ground, forming truly massive amounts of organic debris. But did you know that this yearly spectacle, and all that leaf litter, can have a negative effect on water quality?

Leaf Litter, Nutrients and Stormwater Research

Prior to the 1970s, most “urban leaves” were burned in yards and provided the unmistakeable smell of autumn … to the marked disadvantage of air quality. Beginning in the early 1970s, many cities banned the open burning of leaves and some eventually began collecting leaves at curbside. In 1972, the National Science Foundation funded a group of 12 students (myself included) to consider alternatives to burning leaves in … READ MORE >>

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If Nothing Changes, It Will Happen Again: New Zealand’s Untreated Drinking Water
Fred M. Reiff, P.E.

New Zealand Drinking WaterJust over a year ago, in August 2016, I wrote about how more than 5,000 of the 14,000 residents of Havelock North—a suburb of the City of Hastings on the North Island of New Zealand—became sickened after drinking untreated groundwater contaminated with Campylobacter bacteria, a common food- and waterborne disease-causing microorganism that is transmitted in the feces of infected persons and animals. It was New Zealand’s largest and most costly drinking water outbreak. Last February, I provided an update on a government inquiry into the avoidable outbreak, which may have contributed to the loss of three lives. Now I will comment on the current national discussion in New Zealand about whether or not to require treatment of drinking water, which believe it or not, is still going on.

Government Inquiry and What the Experts Have to Say

The first stage of the inquiry, which included extensive public … READ MORE >>

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Getting Hepatitis A Off the Streets of San Diego
By Ralph Morris, M.D., M.P.H.

Hepatitis AA Hepatitis A outbreak centered on homeless and illicit drug-using populations in the County of San Diego, California, has prompted a public health emergency. Headline-grabbing responses by local officials describe washing the streets and sidewalks with chlorine bleach solution, aggressively vaccinating the vulnerable populations, and distributing personal hygiene kits. What caused this local outbreak and can these measures help mitigate it?

The Facts about Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A is a highly contagious viral disease that affects the human liver, according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). It is usually spread through the fecal-to-oral route, either by person-to-person contact or by consuming contaminated food or water.

Before the era of drinking water chlorination, over a century ago, Hepatitis A, along with typhoid fever and cholera, was one of the great waterborne scourges of American life. Today chlorine-based disinfectants are routinely used during water treatment to destroy the … READ MORE >>

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In the Wake of Hurricanes: The Problem with Standing Water
By Fred M. Reiff, PE

A discarded tire containing standing water can become a choice breeding ground for mosquitoes.

A discarded tire containing standing water can become a choice breeding ground for mosquitoes.

As flood waters recede in Houston and Florida, a new public health threat rears its ugly head: Mosquitoes breeding in standing water left in the wake of hurricanes. Puddles, flower pots and saucers, rain barrels, bird baths, pet bowls, discarded tires, overturned trash can lids, canvas and plastic tarps covering boats and pools, and even swimming pools themselves can become watery incubators for mosquitoes.

Although most mosquitoes do not spread disease, some do spread Zika virus, West Nile virus, chikungunya, malaria, encephalitis and dengue fever. Fortunately, after a quiet summer for Zika virus on the US mainland during which there was no known local transmission of the virus, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) does not expect to see cases of Zika virus appearing in the wake of flooding from the recent hurricanes, READ MORE >>

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